Bubble Nucleation in Liquids
Classical bubble nucleation theory, originally proposed by W. Gibbs assumes the formation of the critical size bubble. This theory fails to predict the amount of decompression for gaseous bubble formation in water-gas solutions. It also fails to predict the tensile strength of liquids. In addition, the classical theory gives no information about the evaporation intensity at the superheat limit. Using a new surface energy for the formation of the critical cluster(Molecular Cluster Model) models for the gas bubble formation in gas-liquid solution[BN-1] and for the vapor bubble formation within a liquid under tension[BN-2, BN-3] were proposed. Our cluster model for bubble nucleation can descripe correctly the evaporation phenomena at the superheat limit[BN-3]. How a critical cluster grows to become a critical size bubble in gas-liquid solutions was also theorized[BN-4, BN-5]. The cluster model of bubble nucleation may be applied to CO bubble formation in iron-melt system characterized with high surface tension and low vapor pressure[BN-6] and the bubble formation on a cavity free surface[BN-7, BN-8, BN-9, BN-10]. The superheat limit of hydrocarbons and their mixtures were measured precisely by using the droplet explosion technique with visualization [BN-11]. The dynamic behavior of the bubble formed from the fully evaporated droplet at its superheat limit was also investigated by measuring the far field pressure signal from the bubble. We reformulated the cluster model for the bubble formation due to dissolved gas molecules and activated vapor molecules in a unified way [BN-12]. Thermal as well as quantum nucleation of bubbles and the cross-over from thermal to quantum regime in liquid helium under negative pressure near the absolute zero temperature was investigated by using the molecular cluster model based as the London dispersion force between molecules [BN-13]. In addition, it was found that the “molecular culster model” for the bubble formation could be extended to predict the laser-induced cavitation [BN-14] which has become important in the field of laser mediated surgery. We found that the mechanism of the light emission from the laser-induced bubble at its first collapse might be due to the black body radiation [BN-15]. Gaseous bubble nucleation events in elastomers, polymers and polymer solutions [BN-16], which is very important in polymer processing [BN-17] to produce foamed materials and microcellular plastics. A bubble-powered micropump which consists of two-parallel microline heaters, and a pair of nozzle-diffuser flow controller was fabricated and tested [BN-18]. More work will be done on the bubble nucleation and growth on a cavity free micro heaters, which could evolutionize the designs and applications of thermal micromachines. Recently, we have reported how gaseous bubble nucleation occurs under shear flow[BN-19]. An effort to understand the absolute metastable limit of liquid was alos tried based on our bubble nucleation model[BN-20]. A review of our bubble nucleation model appears in an entry of 2nd edition of Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science published in 2006 [BN-21]. Explosive boiling processes on the surfaces of nanoparticles irradiated using a high-power laser have been studied for use in medical applications, such as cellular surgery and photo-thermal killing of cells. Detailed theoretical study on nucleation and subsequent evolution of bubbles on the surfaces of nanoparticles irradiated using a high-power laser has been done in Phase Change Lab. [BN-22]. Recently vapor nucleation of water inside a nanopore in 3M NaCl solution was reported [BN-23].
[BN-1] Ho-Young Kwak, R.L. Panton, “Gas bubble formation in non-equillibrum water-gas solutions,” Journal of Chemical Physics. Vol. 78. pp.5795-5799, 1983.
[BN-2] Ho-Young Kwak, R.L. Panton, “Tensile strength of simple liquids predicted by a model of molecular interactions,” Journal of Physics, D, Applied Physics, Vol. 18, pp. 647-659, 1985.
[BN-3] Ho-Young Kwak, Sangbum Lee,”Homogeneous bubble nucleation predicted by a molecular interaction model,” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol.113, pp. 714-721, 1991.
[BN-4] Ho-Young Kwak, “Homogeneous bubble nucleations,” Applied Mechanics Review, Vol. 43, pp.164-165, 1990.
[BN-5] Ho-Young Kwak, Yong W. Kim, “Homogeneous nucleation and macroscopic growth of gas bubble in the organic solutions,” International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 41, pp. 757-767, 1998.
[BN-6] Ho-Young Kwak, Si-Doek Oh, “A model of homogeneous bubble nucleation of CO bubble in Fe-C-O melts,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 198, pp.113-118, 1998.
[BN-7] Si-Doek Oh, Sam-Sun Seung, Ho-Young Kwak, ” A model of bubble nucleation on a micro line heater,” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 121, pp. 220-225, 1999.
[BN-8] Jung-Yeop Lee, Hong-Chul Park, Jung-Yeul Jung, and Ho-Young Kwak, “Bubble nucleation on micro line heaters,” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 121, pp. 687-692, 2003.
[BN-9] Jung-Yeul Jung, Jung-Yeop Lee, Hong-Chul Park, and Ho-Young Kwak, “Bubble nucleation on micro heaters inder steady or finite pulse of voltage input,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 46, pp. 3897-3907, 2003.
[BN-10] Jung-Yeul Jung and Ho-Young Kwak, “Bubble nucleation and behavior on micro square heaters,” Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, Vol. 10, pp. 95-107, 2006. (featured on the issue cover)
[BN-11] Hong-Chul Park, Ki-Taek Byun, and Ho-Young Kwak, “Explosion boiling of liquid droplets at their superheat limits,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 60, pp. 1809-1821, 2005.
[BN-12] Ho-Young Kwak, and Si-Doek Oh, “Gas-vapor bubble nucleation; An unified approach,” J. of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 278, pp. 436-446, 2004.
[BN-13] Ho-Young Kwak, Jung-Yeul Jung and Jae-Ho Hong, “Quantum nucleation of bubbles in liquid heliums,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., Vol. 71, pp. 2186-2191, 2002.
[BN-14] Ki-Taek Byun, and Ho-Young Kwak, “A model of laser-induced cavitation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 43, pp. 621-630, 2004.
[BN-15] Ki-Taek Byun, Ho-Young Kwak, and Sarng Woo Karng, “Bubble evolution and radiation mechanism for laser-induced collapsing bubble in water,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 43, pp. 6364-6370, 2004.
[BN-16] Seong Lin Karng, Ki Young Kim, and Ho-Young Kwak, “Bubble nucleation and growth in polymer solutions,” Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 44, pp. 1890-1899, 2004.
[BN-17] Ki Young Kim, Sung Lin Kang, and Ho-Young Kwak, “Generationof microcellular foams by supercritical carbond dioxide in a PMMA compound,” International Polymer Processing, Vol. 23, pp. 8-16, 2008.
[BN-18] Jung-Yeul Jung and Ho-Young Kwak, “Fabrication and testing of bubble-powered micropumps using imbedded microheater,” Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Vol. 3, pp. 161-169, 2007.
[BN-19] Ho-Young Kwak and Ki-Moon Kang, ” Gaseous bubble nucleation under shear flow,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 52, pp.4729-4937, 2009.
[BN-20] Ho-Young Kwak Ki-Moon Kang and Ilgon Ko, “The absolute metastable limit of liquids under tension — A review,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 25, pp. 863-869, 2011.
[BN-21] Ho-Young Kwak, Bubbles: Homogeneous nucleation, in Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, 2nd Edition, pp. 1048-1071, CRC Press, 2006.
[BN-22] Ho-Young Kwak, Jaekyoon Oh, Yungpil Yoo, Shahid Mahmood, “Bubble formation on the surface of laser-irradiated nano-sized particles,” Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 136, pp. 081501-1~081501-9, 2014.
[BN-23] Jaekyoon Oh, Yungpil Yoo, Ho-Young Kwak, “Homogeneous vapor nucleation of water in 3M NaCl solution within a nanopore,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 68, pp. 252-257, 2015.